Latin America and the Caribbean Moscow Shanghai
Africa and the Middle East
General Issues


The Shanghai workshop was attended by participants from several East and Southest Asian countries, with China itself being well represented by multiple participants from different institutions and backgrounds.  While held in Shanghai and exploring in depth the religious landscape in contemporary China, the day’s discussion also covered religious dynamics in and between the represented countries.  Topics of exploration included an overview of China’s “national” religions and the need for government engagement with, and leveraging of, “Believing China” as a source of self empowerment in diplomatic policy.  While current data suggests that the average number of civil society organizations in China is three per ten thousand people, the lack of data on faith-based NGOs is considered problematic.  Religious identity, nationalism, traditions, and the importation and exportation of religion were common themes for participants from all the countries represented at this workshop.